Top ten: Reptiles

The evolution of reptiles can be understood by the number of openings, or “fenestrae,” in their skulls. Turtles and tortoises have none, while all other reptiles, including dinosaurs, have two. (Among other things, the number of fenestrae provides an important clue about the evolution of mammals, which share key characteristics of their skulls with ancient therapsids, the pre-mammal.)


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